Born in Ancona in 1969, graduated in chemistry at University of Perugia.

Later on, at the same University, she earns a Ph.D. in Chemical Sciences during which she starts dealing with the materials cultural goods are tipically made of, with a research on photochemistry and photophysics of natural pigments routinely used by painters.  After a master in the science labs of Rome's ICR - Central Institute for Restoration, in 2000 she became a researcher at CNR Institute of Molecular Science and Technology, where today she heads the Cultural Goods Research Group.

In 2001 she was a visiting scientist at Princeton Materials Institute where her focus was on materials for stone consolidation. An expert in spectroscopy techniques and artistic materials, her research activity helped creating the MOLAB, a network of mobile labs for spectroscopy techniques. She's in charge of promoting access to MOLAB by Italian and European researchers of Heritage Science Field. With MOLAB, Costanza Miliani and her research group have studied the chemistry of materials of masterpieces of modern and ancient art, contributing to both their historical-artistic appreciation and their conservation over time.

Coeditor of "Science and Art. The painted Surface", published in 2014 by the Royal Society of Chemistry, Costanza Miliani sits on the science board of IPANEMA (Sincrotrone Soleil, Parigi) and NU-ACCESS (Northwestern University – Art Institute of Chicago), two labs that investigate the chemical properties of materials in cultural goods.